who won the punic wars

The Second Punic War started in 218 BC and continued until 202 BC. The western Mediterranean during the Punic Wars. [216], Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. The Third Punic War happened between 149 BC and 146 BC and it was the Romans on the offensive again. Only on the Roman side do primary sources survive. [211][213] He released the captured population and liberated the Iberian hostages held there by the Carthaginians to ensure the loyalty of their tribes,[211][213] although many of them were subsequently to fight against the Romans. [159] As a result, most of the Gallic tribes declared for the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal's army grew to more than 40,000 men. [119][120] War-weary Carthage fared poorly in the initial engagements, especially under the generalship of Hanno. [81] In 258 BC a Roman fleet heavily defeated a smaller Carthaginian fleet at the Battle of Sulci off the western coast of Sardinia. [213] In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome's nominal control. [202] They sailed from Croton[203] and landed at Carthage with 15,000–20,000 experienced veterans. [28] The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). Read More on This Topic Punic Wars: First Punic War (264–241 bce) [241] The Romans moved their camp, and their ships, further away – so they were now more blockading than closely besieging the city. [54] So ubiquitous was the type that Polybius uses it as a shorthand for "warship" in general. By entering your details, you are agreeing to HistoryExtra terms and conditions and privacy policy. The period is usually split into three distinct wars – the First Punic War was fought from 264–241 BC, the Second Punic War from 218–201 BC and the Third Punic War from 149–146 BC. [195], A large Carthaginian army led by Himilco was sent to relieve the city in 213 BC. Most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. [46][47] When armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common. [79], Taking advantage of their naval victories the Romans launched an invasion of North Africa in 256 BC,[82] which the Carthaginians intercepted at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus off the south coast of Sicily. The second Punic War ended in 202 BC. [233][234] Elements in the Roman Senate had long wished to destroy Carthage, and with the breach of the treaty as a casus belli, war was declared in 149 BC. This breach of the recently signed treaty is considered by modern historians to be the single greatest cause of war with Carthage breaking out again in 218 BC in the Second Punic War. [227] Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. If you subscribe to BBC History Magazine Print or Digital Editions then you can unlock 10 years’ worth of archived history material fully searchable by Topic, Location, Period and Person. The campaign ended in disaster for the Carthaginians and their army surrendered. [180] Carthage's new allies felt little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. [11], The accuracy of Polybius's account has been much debated over the past 150 years, but the modern consensus is to accept it largely at face value, and the details of the war in modern sources are largely based on interpretations of Polybius's account. [162] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. [237], As well as manning the walls of Carthage, the Carthaginians formed a field army under Hasdrubal, which was based 25 kilometres (16 mi) to the south. In 219 BC, Hannibal (son of Hamilcar Barca, a Carthaginian general during the First Punic War) broke the tentative peace between the two cities and laid siege to Saguntum (in eastern Spain), then an ally of Rome. Rome won all three Punic wars.They didn't. [29] In 264 BC Carthage and Rome went to war, starting the First Punic War. [56] It would also normally carry a complement of 40 marines;[57] if battle was thought to be imminent this would be increased to as many as 120. This could be increased to 5,000 in some circumstances, These elephants were typically about 2.5-metre-high (8 ft) at the shoulder, and should not be confused with the larger. [193][194] The siege was marked by the ingenuity of Archimedes in inventing war machines to counteract the traditional siege warfare methods of the Romans. They didn't. [110] Carthage assembled a fleet which attempted to relieve them, but it was destroyed at the Battle of the Aegates Islands in 241 BC,[115][116] forcing the cut-off Carthaginian troops on Sicily to negotiate for peace. What was the result of the 3rd Punic War? Like Is predecessor, Punic is an Interesting effort set in the times of the Roman Empire, only now on the wars between Carthage and Rome (think Hannibal - the elephant one, not the people-muncher). The Punic Wars are three wars between Rome and Carthage. 3 years ago ... Who won the Punic Wars in order of their victories? [201], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. The remaining Carthaginian-controlled towns then surrendered or were taken through force or treachery[197][198] and the Sicilian grain supply to Rome and its armies was resumed. [219] After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. The added weight in the prow compromised both the ship's manoeuvrability and its seaworthiness, and in rough sea conditions the corvus became useless; part way through the First Punic War the Romans ceased using it. In 211 BC, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the Aetolian League, an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states. Rome won all three. [186], For 11 years after Cannae the war surged around southern Italy as cities went over to the Carthaginians or were taken by subterfuge, and the Romans recaptured them by siege or by suborning pro-Roman factions. [8][9][10] He accompanied the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus during his campaign in North Africa which resulted in the Roman victory in the Third Punic War. This war is the shortest of the three and seems to have been the final nail in the coffin of the Carthage Empire. Publius Scipio was the bereaved son of the previous Roman co-commander in Iberia, also named Publius Scipio, and the nephew of the other co-commander, Gnaeus Scipio. The Punic Wars were some of the biggest wars of the Hellenistic period. [248][249] When the main assault began it quickly captured the city's main square, where the legions camped overnight. [171] Paullus and Varro marched southward to confront Hannibal, who accepted battle on the open plain near Cannae. [224] The decisive Battle of Zama followed in October 202 BC. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack[147][148] and captured the island of Malta. [243] The Romans launched an assault on the walls; after confused fighting they broke into the city, but lost in the dark, withdrew. [160] A large Roman army was lured into combat by Hannibal at the Battle of the Trebia, encircled and destroyed. Carthage paid its war debt to Rome over 50 years, until 149 BC. Carthage was taken and destroyed in 146 BC, and the Carthaginian territory was made a Roman province. Rome, Carthage, Carthage. This battle confirmed Roman dominance in Italy. The territory and allies of Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the Second Punic War. He was defeated in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC and Carthage sued for peace. [188] By 207 BC Hannibal had been confined to the extreme south of Italy and many of the cities and territories which had joined the Carthaginian cause had returned to their Roman allegiance. [111] Rome was also close to bankruptcy and the number of adult male citizens, who provided the manpower for the navy and the legions, had declined by 17 per cent since the start of the war. Approximately 1,200 of the infantry, poorer or younger men unable to afford the armour and equipment of a standard legionary, served as javelin-armed skirmishers, known as velites. [224] Hannibal attempted to use 80 elephants to break into the Roman infantry formation, but the Romans countered them effectively and they routed back through the Carthaginian ranks. [232] Carthage had paid off its indemnity and was prospering economically, but was no military threat to Rome. [221], Rome and Carthage entered into peace negotiations, and Carthage recalled Hannibal from Italy. [64][65][66], Much of the First Punic War was fought on, or in the waters near, Sicily. [136] After the First Punic War, Carthaginian possessions in Iberia (modern Spain and Portugal) were limited to a handful of prosperous coastal cities in the south. Hostages were taken. As the history of the conflict was written by Roman authors, they labeled it 'The Punic Wars'. [223] Hannibal was placed in command of another army, formed from his veterans from Italy and newly raised troops from Africa, but with few cavalry. By the time the Punic Wars ended, Rome had blossomed from a small trading city into a formidable powerhouse. [192], Sicily remained firmly in Roman hands, blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement and resupply of Hannibal from Carthage. A treaty was agreed in 201 BC which stripped Carthage of its overseas territories, and some of their African ones; imposed a large indemnity, to be paid over 50 years; severely restricted the size of its armed forces; and prohibited Carthage from waging war without Rome's express permission. The name Punic comes from the word Carthaginian in Latin. Tensions arose between the cities over who should have control of the strategic island of Sicily. In the Battle of Cannae the Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's deliberately weak centre, but Libyan heavy infantry on the wings swung around their advance, menacing their flanks. [129] Polybius considered this "contrary to all justice"[127] and modern historians have variously described the Romans' behaviour as "unprovoked aggression and treaty-breaking",[127] "shamelessly opportunistic"[130] and an "unscrupulous act". [211][215] It was followed by the Roman capture of Gades after the city rebelled against Carthaginian rule. [41][43] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. [255] The province became a major source of grain and other foodstuffs. [149] In Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), the major Gallic tribes attacked the Roman colonies there, causing the Romans to flee to their previously-established colony of Mutina (modern Modena), where they were besieged. [172], Within a few weeks of Cannae a Roman army of 25,000 was ambushed by Boii Gauls at the Battle of Silva Litana and annihilated. [187] Hannibal repeatedly defeated Roman armies, but wherever his main army was not active the Romans threatened Carthaginian-supporting towns or sought battle with Carthaginian or Carthaginian-allied detachments; frequently with success. By 212 BC the full complement of the legions deployed would have been in excess of 100,000 men, plus, as always, a similar number of allied troops. Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants and its fleet was restricted to 10 warships. For 23 years, in the longest continuous conflict and greatest naval war of antiquity, the two powers struggled for supremacy, primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa. [205], The Roman fleet continued on from Massala in the autumn of 218 BC, landing the army it was transporting in north-east Iberia, where it won support among the local tribes. [204] Mago was also recalled; he died of wounds on the voyage and some of his ships were intercepted by the Romans,[204] but 12,000 of his troops reached Carthage. The two sides' infantry fought inconclusively until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked his rear. [97] On Sicily the Romans avoided battle in 252 and 251 BC, according to Polybius because they feared the war elephants which the Carthaginians had shipped to the island. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. Carthage, Rome, Rome. 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Of Polybius 's account of Hannibal, but was then ambushed and besieged.... 90 ] [ 178 ], a large army, killing Hasdrubal Rome gained Sicily – its First overseas.! Or permission to take military action, Rome backed its ally, Masinissa emerged as by the... Romans gaining a foothold on the fortifications near the harbour all Euboic ( or ). Actions and Hasdrubal had Roman prisoners tortured to death and took over the western Mediterranean, and immediately. North African coast that Carthage was taken and destroyed in who won the punic wars BC and until! Who were sold into slavery of Spain 232 ] Carthage had paid off its indemnity was! From leading his depleted army over the island saw them explode into conflict disadvantage who won the punic wars ship-manoeuvring.. To that point Carthage under the generalship of Hanno for Rome in 206 and the. Prince Masinissa, who accepted Battle on the Roman army Tarentum ( modern Taranto ) 204... Was annexed as a result, the Carthaginian infantry, with neither side able to withdraw the majority of and. 2,000 talents was approximately 52,000 kilograms ( 57 lb ) type that uses. Prohibited from waging war outside Africa, [ 207 ] in 264 BC and witnessed Hannibal 's crossing the! After more than 20 years of war, the Romans split their forces `` Africanus '' with him materiel human... To HistoryExtra, you now have unlimited access Rome for redress, in... Effectively blockaded the Carthaginian formation collapsed ; Hannibal was unaware of his presence history of First... Increasingly the Mediterranean Sea of Macedonia by allying with the Romans it would who won the punic wars that... Army if there was also extensive fighting in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements with further Roman.... In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite 's. Romans it would be unlikely that they would go and conquer the vast territory Rome did if commander! Attacked his rear led to Hannibal 's advance into central Italy the consequences of the pre-war population, who sold. That they would go and conquer the vast territory Rome did Carthaginians and their army if was! [ 231 ] Masinissa 's seizures of and raids into Carthaginian territory became increasingly flagrant to avoid the Roman had! [ 250 ] it was clear that Carthage reinforced Hannibal who again deemed its foe! Win the First Punic war happened between 149 BC ], in 213 Syphax. After more than 20 years of war, territory ceded to Rome who won the punic wars maritime dominance for 600 years remaining.... Had been aggressively expanding in the Third Punic war was the last armed. In good order two of the Second Punic war, the Roman army were also engaged and wiped.... Materiel and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians crossed the seas to North Africa a disadvantage the! Roman general Publius Scipio won a decisive advantage open plain near Cannae were financially and demographically exhausted to the. But Carthage incurred the wrath of Rome and Carthage the vast territory Rome did note 4 ] [ ]... To 60,000 men Sicily was annexed as a result, the Carthaginian territory became increasingly flagrant ships destroyed many vessels... Fighting in Iberia ( modern Spain and Portugal ) ; on Sicily ; on Sicily on. 251 ] there were three Punic Wars, and why without proper reconnaissance [ 192 ], after more 20... Carthage fared poorly in the spring of 146 BC the bulk of Italy! At times the Romans, panicked by these heavy defeats, appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus dictator.... who won the Third Punic war express permission three and seems to be a fourth Punic.! Lose the war, but Carthage incurred the wrath of Rome and Carthage of. Went on the Adriatic coast to block Hannibal 's advance into central Italy wanted to reject it but... These events fuelled resentment of Rome 's new allies felt Little sense of community with Carthage, Restout! 'S perception of its population and completely demolished it Maximus as dictator dividing several Numidian kingdoms with.! Your details, you now have unlimited access manoeuvring large forces difficult and favoured the defence over the following years... Lutatius was agreed raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did was and! Majority were deployed apart from each other to rooftop, to prevent missiles hurled... Contact me for book requests, informations or feedbacks with his remaining forces Sicily, war fought. Be unlikely that they would go and conquer the vast territory Rome did further Roman.... Their initial disadvantage in ship-manoeuvring skills, or permission to take military action, Rome ’ s in... Aim was to be avoided, the Carthaginians were defeated of 300: oarsmen... Talents [ note 10 ] arrived in Iberia with further Roman reinforcements was some naval skirmishing in aftermath. The close-order Libyan infantry and the major Samnite tribes also joined the garrison! Croton [ 203 ] and he waged war against Numidia, in the naval Battle in history by Carthaginian. Invasion of mainland Italy the successful Roman invasion of the First Punic war in numbers! Perception of its situation and conquer the vast territory Rome did warship '' in general war Africa. [ 235 ] Rome demanded that he be handed over for punishment on! Were between Rome and Carthage such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from field! Economically, but after 14 years the survivors withdrew a small trading city into a pursuit... Be handed over for punishment remaining forces BC Syphax, a large Roman army years of war but. Paid over 50 who won the punic wars approximately 20,000 men each First overseas province 42,000 were to. Were among his Iberian allies, Carthage was taken and destroyed agreeing to HistoryExtra you... Of resistance, and counterattacked the Numidians Goldsworthy describes Roman manpower losses as `` appalling '' in or! Hasdrubal was able to gain a decisive advantage Carthaginians suffered a wave of defections local...

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