hannibal punic wars

A counter-invasion of North Africa led by Scipio Africanus forced him to return to Carthage. At the court of King Prusias of Bithynia in 183 BCE, with Rome still in pursuit, Hannibal chose to end his life rather than be taken by his enemies. "[90] After Cannae the Romans showed a considerable steadfastness in adversity. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The tide was slowly turning against him, and in favor of Rome. It is recorded in Carthaginian sources as ḤNBÊ¿L[3] (Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋). Hundreds of thousands will die, and Rome will win mastery of the known world. The main cause of the Punic Wars was the clash of interests between the existing empire of Carthage and the expanding Roman Republic. In the Second Punic War it was occupied by Fabius Cunctator in 217 B.C., taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215, but recaptured in the following year, serving the Romans as their base of operations against Capua. [108], Hannibal covers most of North Africa with olive groves thanks to the work of his soldiers, whose rest he considers prejudicial to the State and their generals.[109]. He crossed without opposition over both the Apennines (during which he lost his right eye[46] because of conjunctivitis) and the seemingly impassable Arno, but he lost a large part of his force in the marshy lowlands of the Arno.[47]. Thus did they, in a manner worthy of great commanders, cast aside their enmity at the end of their wars. In 207 BC, he succeeded in making his way again into Apulia, where he waited to concert measures for a combined march upon Rome with his brother Hasdrubal. Hasdrubal, recognizing that Spain was a lost cause, crossed the Alps to join Hannibal in Italy for a united attack on Rome. Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society. The members of the senate, who had refused to send him aid when he needed it in Italy, accused him of betraying the interests of the state by not taking Rome when he had the chance but, still, Hannibal remained true to the interests of his people until the senators trumped up further charges and denounced Hannibal to Rome claiming he was making Carthage a power again so as to challenge the Romans. Instead, he had to content himself with subduing the fortresses that still held out against him, and the only other notable event of 216 BC was the defection of certain Italian territories, including Capua, the second largest city of Italy, which Hannibal made his new base. He maintained this post for eight years until 221 BC. License. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Indeed, the breadth of his vision gave rise to his grand strategy of conquering Rome by opening a northern front and subduing allied city-states on the peninsula, rather than by attacking Rome directly. This eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the combat area. [52], After Cannae, the Romans were very hesitant to confront Hannibal in pitched battle, preferring instead to weaken him by attrition, relying on their advantages of interior lines, supply, and manpower. If Polybius is correct in his figure for the number of troops that he commanded after the crossing of the Rhône, this would suggest that he had lost almost half of his force. Hannibal's Iberian and Gallic heavy cavalry, led by Hanno on the left, defeated the Roman heavy cavalry, and then both the Carthaginian heavy cavalry and the Numidians attacked the legions from behind. This erupted into full-scale mutiny under the leadership of Spendius and Matho and 70,000 Africans from Carthage's oppressed dependant territories flocked to join the mutineers, bringing supplies … His army grew steadily with new recruits until he had 50,000 infantry and 9,000 cavalry by the time he reached the Alps. Hannibal, now perceiving his jealousy, replied, "in that case I should have put myself before Alexander". What was at stake was control of the trading around the Mediterranean sea. [63] Aware that he had many enemies, not least of which due to his financial reforms eliminating opportunities for oligarchical graft, Hannibal fled into voluntary exile before the Romans could demand that Carthage surrender him into their custody. The Romans deprived Hannibal of a large-scale battle and instead assaulted his weakening army with multiple smaller armies in an attempt to both weary him and create unrest in his troops. Hannibal's strategy of presenting himself as a liberator worked and a number of cities chose to side with him against Rome while his victories on the field continued to swell his ranks with new recruits. The wailing cry of the matrons was heard everywhere, not only in private houses but even in the temples. [34] Biostratigraphic archaeological data has reinforced the case for Col de la Traversette; analysis of peat bogs near watercourses on both sides of the pass's summit showed that the ground was heavily disturbed "by thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of animals and humans" and that the soil bore traces of unique levels of Clostridia bacteria associated with the digestive tract of horses and mules. As the Romans moved off towards the woods, Hannibal's army occupied the pass, and then made their way through the pass unopposed. By capturing Cannae, Hannibal had placed himself between the Romans and their crucial sources of supply. Even the Roman chroniclers acknowledged Hannibal's supreme military leadership, writing that "he never required others to do what he could not and would not do himself". Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire. Carthage lost approximately 20,000 troops with an additional 15,000 wounded. The Enemies of Rome: From Hannibal to Attila the Hun, The Historians of Ancient Rome: An Anthology of the Major Writings, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The Romans and allied legions resolved to confront Hannibal and marched southward to Apulia. Even so, he continued to do his best for his people throughout his life and remained true to the vow he had taken when young; to the end, he remained an enemy of Rome and his name would be remembered as Rome's greatest adversary for generations - and even to the present day. Second Punic War, 218-201 BC, most famous for Hannibal's victories in Italy, but ended as a Roman victory Second Punic War, 218-201 BC Home - Book Shop - Wars - Battles - Biographies - Timeline - Weapons - Blog - Full Index - Subjects - Concepts - Country - Documents - … [40] These Hannibal surmounted with ingenuity, such as when he used vinegar and fire to break through a rockfall. [29] Additionally, he would have to contend with opposition from the Gauls, whose territory he passed through. Hannibal's forces moved through the Po Valley and were engaged in the Battle of Ticinus. A true giant of military history, Hannibal forged his formidable reputation during the Punic Wars of the second century B.C. "[64] In 191 BC, the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio routed Antiochus at the battle of Thermopylae and obliged him to withdraw to Asia Minor. [62], The principal beneficiaries of these financial peculations had been the oligarchs of the Hundred and Four. Hannibal's father Hamilcar Barca was the Carthaginian general. But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy. Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. Hannibal ravaged Apulia but was unable to bring Fabius to battle, so he decided to march through Samnium to Campania, one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle. The other Roman consular army was rushed to the Po Valley. He was the son of Hamilcar Barca (ca. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Carthage at the time was in such a poor state that it lacked a navy able to transport his army; instead, Hamilcar had to march his forces across Numidia towards the Pillars of Hercules and then cross the Strait of Gibraltar. Hannibal next defeated his enemies at Lake Trasimeme and quickly took control of northern Italy. That war could be waged by avoiding in lieu of seeking battle; that the results of a victory could be earned by attacks upon the enemy's communications, by flank-maneuvers, by seizing positions from which safely to threaten him in case he moved, and by other devices of strategy, was not understood... [However] For the first time in the history of war, we see two contending generals avoiding each other, occupying impregnable camps on heights, marching about each other's flanks to seize cities or supplies in their rear, harassing each other with small-war, and rarely venturing on a battle which might prove a fatal disaster—all with a well-conceived purpose of placing his opponent at a strategic disadvantage... That it did so was due to the teaching of Hannibal. Hannibal outmaneuvered the natives who had tried to prevent his crossing, then evaded a Roman force marching from the Mediterranean coast by turning inland up the valley of the Rhône. In his first few years in Italy, he won a succession of dramatic victories at the Trebia, Lake Trasimene, and Cannae. After the Battle of Trebbia (218 BCE), where he again defeated the Romans, he retreated for the winter to the north where he developed his plans for the spring campaign and developed various strategems to keep from being assassinated by spies in his camp or hired killers sent by the Romans. The Romans, meanwhile, had no idea of Hannibal's movements. Plutarch states that Scipio supposedly asked Hannibal "who the greatest general was", to which Hannibal replied "either Alexander or Pyrrhus, then himself". For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.[100]. The towns of southern Hispania were subdued by Carthage. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. Hannibal was certain he would scatter these Romans easily with an elephant charge but Scipio used his front line as a screen for a very different kind of formation: instead of the closely-packed configuration presenting a horizontal front across the line (the formation Hannibal saw from his position) he arranged his troops in vertical rows behind the front line. The forces detached to his lieutenants were generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor his new ally Philip V of Macedon helped to make up his losses. When the Roman army advanced, the center of the Carthaginian line began to give way so that it seemed as though Varro had been correct and the center would break. A mausoleum and colossus Hannibal, 17 meters high, is projected to be built on the Byrsa, the highest point of Carthage overlooking Tunis. Carthaginian political will was embodied in the ruling oligarchy. The fired rockfall event is mentioned only by Livy; Polybius is mute on the subject and there is no evidence[42] of carbonized rock at the only two-tier rockfall in the Western Alps, located below the Col de la Traversette (Mahaney, 2008). The Punic Wars were a clash of two growing societies and their aspirations for supremacy of Mediterranean. Hannibal's military genius was not enough to really disturb the Roman political process and the collective political and military capacity of the Roman people. [5] It is equivalent to the Hebrew name Haniel. Second Punic War (218-201) By 219, Carthage was recovering from the costs of the First Punic War and was looking to expand her empire, particularly in Spain. "Hannibal." Hannibal took the vow gladly - and never forgot it. The Celts were amassing forces to invade farther south in Italy, presumably with Carthaginian backing. Once spring came, Hannibal launched a new assault, destroying the Roman army under Gaius Flaminius and another under Servilius Geminus. [87], According to the historian Livy, the Romans feared Hannibal's military genius, and during Hannibal's march against Rome in 211 BC, "a messenger who had travelled from Fregellae for a day and a night without stopping created great alarm in Rome, and the excitement was increased by people running about the City with wildly exaggerated accounts of the news he had brought. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. He distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's respective strengths and weaknesses, and to plan battles accordingly. So successful was Fabius' strategy that he almost caught Hannibal in a trap. Winning battles at Trebia (218 BC) and Lake Trasimene (217 BC), Hannibal defeated armies led by Tiberius Sempronius Longus and Gaius Flaminius Nepos. "[2][14] According to the tradition, Hannibal's oath took place in the town of Peñíscola, today part of the Valencian Community, Spain. The Romans appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus as their dictator. de Beer, S. G., 1974, Hannibal: The struggle for power in the Mediterranean, Book Club Associates, London. [98], Military academies all over the world continue to study Hannibal's exploits, especially his victory at Cannae.[99]. Fabius understood that Hannibal was no common adversary, however, and still refused to engage. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. A street in Carthage, located near the Punic ports, bears his name as well as a stop of the Carthage metro, the TGM "Carthage Hannibal". (The word “Punic,” later the name for the series of wars between Carthage and Rome, was derived from the Latin word for Phoenician.) [72] Cornelius Nepos[73] and Livy,[74] however, tell a different story, namely that the ex-consul Titus Quinctius Flamininus, on discovering that Hannibal was in Bithynia, went there in an embassy to demand his surrender from King Prusias. Hannibal occupied most of southern Italy for 15 years, but could not win a decisive victory, as the Romans led by Fabius Maximus avoided confrontation with him, instead waging a war of attrition. Hannibal was right, however; his troops were exhausted after Cannae and he had neither elephants nor siege engines to take the city. The solution was a military expedition to obtain the riches of the Iberian Peninsula. [35] Radiocarbon dating secured dates of 2168BP or c.218BC, the year of Hannibal's march. This paper examines the influence of Hannibal of Carthage on... Hannibal Barca (l. 247-183 BCE), the brilliant Carthaginian general... Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with, Facing the threat of being handed to the Romans after the. Both De Beer and Siebert had selected the Col de la Traversette as the one most closely matching the ancient descriptions. [18] The Roman epic poet Silius Italicus names her as Imilce. Thus he was hard to recognize, not just by those who saw him briefly, but even by those who knew him well. In the musical Phantom Of The Opera there is a fictional opera about Hannibal, called Hannibal, and is present at the beginning of the musical. Map of Hannibals Route into Italyby The Department of History, United States Military Academy (GNU FDL). No surviving ancient biography makes him the subject, and Hannibal slips in and out of focus according to the emphasis that other authors give his deeds and character\" (24). Whatever the reason, the choice prompted Maharbal to say, "Hannibal, you know how to gain a victory, but not how to use one."[53]. [51] Once the Roman Senate resumed their consular elections in 216 BC, they appointed Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus as consuls. He marched on Rome to force the recall of the Roman armies. He then made his famous military exploit of carrying war to Italy by crossing the Alps with his North African war elephants. [2], Hannibal is the "hero" of teenager Sigmund Freud. His following campaign in 220 BC was against the Vaccaei to the west, where he stormed the Vaccaen strongholds of Helmantice and Arbucala. The Carthaginians did not use hereditary surnames, but typically were distinguished from others bearing the same name using patronymics or epithets. He gave Rufus half the army and invited him to do his best. Pausanias wrote that Hannibal's death occurred after his finger was wounded by his drawn sword while mounting his horse, resulting in a fever and then his death three days later. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. [41] According to Polybius, he arrived in Italy accompanied by 20,000-foot soldiers, 4,000 horsemen, and only a few elephants. In 210 BC, Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by inflicting a severe defeat at the Battle of Herdonia (modern Ordona) in Apulia upon a proconsular army and, in 208 BC, destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri at the Battle of Petelia. P.313-314, Baier, Thomas. He moved to Lucania and destroyed a 16,000-man Roman army at the Battle of the Silarus, with 15,000 Romans killed. The alpine invasion of Italy was a military operation that would shake the Mediterranean World of 218 BC with repercussions for more than two decades. In 203 BC, Hannibal was recalled from Italy by the war party in Carthage. "[88], In the Senate the news was "received with varying feelings as men's temperaments differed,"[88] so it was decided to keep Capua under siege, but to send 15,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry as reinforcements to Rome. It seemed that Hannibal had to either fight his way out or surrender but then, one night, the Romans saw a line of torches moving from the Carthaginian camp emplacement toward an area they knew was held by a strong garrison of their own. He drew off 15,000 Roman soldiers, but the siege continued and Capua fell. The onslaught of Hannibal's cavalry was irresistible. It was a devastating defeat for Rome which resulted in a number of the Italian city-states defecting to Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon (r. 221-179 BCE) declaring in favor of Hannibal and initiating the First Macedonian War with Rome. The Carthaginian senate believed he could handle the situation without any added expense on their part and suggested his men live off the land. P.174. Polybius, who wrote nearest the event, gives 182 BC. As for the second Punic War, pro-Roman historians, such as Polybius and Livy, have tried to blame it on the actions of the great Carthaginian general, Hannibal Barca, who some believe was motivated by a need to avenge the wrongs committed against Carthage as well as by his undying hatred of Rome. Upon reaching the mountains he was forced to leave behind his siege engines and a number of other supplies he felt would slow their progress and then had the army begin their ascent. According to the military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge, Hannibal excelled as a tactician. In the wake of these victories, he moved south plundering the countryside and … Hannibal Barca (/ˈhænɪbəl/; Punic: 𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋𐤟𐤁𐤓𐤒, ḤannibaÊ¿l Baraq; 247 â€“ between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded Carthage's main forces against the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. [52] Hannibal capitalized on the eagerness of Varro and drew him into a trap by using an envelopment tactic. [2] Among the dead were Roman Consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus, as well as two consuls for the preceding year, two quaestors, 29 out of the 48 military tribunes, and an additional eighty senators (at a time when the Roman Senate was composed of no more than 300 men, this constituted 25%–30% of the governing body). The Romans under Varro's command were placed in traditional formation to march toward the center of the enemy's lines and break them. He left Rome with only 10,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry to meet Hannibal's much larger force. The Carthaginian forces fell back evenly, drawing the Romans further and further into their lines, and then the light infantry moved to either end of the crescent formation and the heavy infantry advanced to the front. As always, Hannibal spent time learning about his enemy, their strengths and weaknesses, and knew that Varro was eager for a fight and over-confident of success. The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary. Hannibal was a common Carthaginian personal name. There is no doubt, as Bradford also notes, that had Hannibal "been fighting against any other nation in the ancient world...his overwhelming victories would have brought them to their knees and to an early capitulation" (210) but the cause of Hannibal's defeat was just as much the fault of the Carthaginian elite who refused to support the general and his troops who were fighting for their cause. "Hannibal." Nevertheless, the Romans grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace; they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.[84]. [56] Hannibal also secured an alliance with newly appointed tyrant Hieronymus of Syracuse. [25] The delegation's leader, Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, demanded Carthage chose between war and peace, to which his audience replied that Rome could choose. The First Punic war lasted for 20 years. But he now understood that the wound Rome had received at Cannae had not been mortal. In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at Cannae in the Apulian plain. He writes indeed in The Interpretation of Dreams: "Hannibal and Rome symbolized for the adolescent that I was the opposition between the tenacity of Judaism and the organizing spirit of the Catholic Church".[107]. Hannibal then marched to the Roman supply depot of Cannae, which he took easily, and then gave his men time to rest. He is widely considered one of the greatest military commanders in world history. have concluded that this and other evidence strongly supports the Col de la Traversette as being the 'Hannibalic Route' as had been argued by Gavin de Beer in 1974. Hannibal attacked them, forcing their withdrawal from Campania. An undeniable proof of Rome's confidence is demonstrated by the fact that after the Cannae disaster she was left virtually defenseless, but the Senate still chose not to withdraw a single garrison from an overseas province to strengthen the city. He then advanced through the uplands of Etruria, provoking Flaminius into a hasty pursuit and catching him in a defile on the shore of Lake Trasimenus. [83][need quotation to verify] It is plausible to suggest that Hannibal engendered the greatest fear Rome had towards an enemy. The flow of defections to the Carthaginian side slowed and then stopped. Hannibal (247-183 BCE) was the greatest general to emerge from the Carthaginian Barca family. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Mar 2018. Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, "I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome. The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity. He was 65 years old. P.126–128, Benz, Franz L. 1982. As Polybius recounts, "he [Hannibal] calculated that, if he passed the camp and made a descent into the district beyond, Flaminius (partly for fear of popular reproach and partly of personal irritation) would be unable to endure watching passively the devastation of the country but would spontaneously follow him... and give him opportunities for attack. Livy states that the Seleucid king consulted Hannibal on the strategic concerns of making war on Rome. The newly appointed Hannibal laid siege to the city of Saguntum on the eastern coast of Iberia (as Spain was known at the time). He also had with him a number of elephants which he had found very useful in terrorizing the Roman army and their cavalry. Hannibal eagerly accepted the invitation but, before he was allowed to join up, his father "took Hannibal by the hand and led him to the altar. [82], His legacy would be recorded by his Greek tutor, Sosylus of Lacedaemon. Starting in the spring of 218 BC, he crossed the Pyrenees and reached the Rhône by conciliating the Gaulish chiefs along his passage before the Romans could take any measures to bar his advance, arriving at the Rhône in September. to express their fear or anxiety. Soon the Romans became aware of an alliance between Carthage and the Celts of the Po Valley in Northern Italy. In the story, Hannibal's father took him up and brought him to a sacrificial chamber. The Carthaginian general advised equipping a fleet and landing a body of troops in the south of Italy, offering to take command himself. The Carthaginian Senate responded with legal arguments observing the lack of ratification by either government for the treaty alleged to have been violated. Hannibal's well-planned strategies allowed him to conquer several Italian cities allied to Rome. Ancient History Encyclopedia. [80], Hannibal caused great distress to many in Roman society. When Hannibal launched his elephant charge, Scipio's front line simply moved aside and the elephants ran harmlessly down the alleys between the Roman troops who then killed their handlers and turned the elephants around to crush the ranks of the Carthaginians; Hannibal was defeated and the Second Punic War was over. In the spring of 217 BC, Hannibal decided to find a more reliable base of operations farther south. He replied, "I have seen during my life many old fools; but this one beats them all." Hasdrubal … In Rome, Scipio was also dealing with problems posed by his own senate as they accused him of sympathizing with Hannibal by pardoning and releasing him, accepting bribes, and misappropiating funds. pp. His younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, and he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair, who also commanded Carthaginian armies. The Roman scholar Livy gives a depiction of the young Carthaginian: "No sooner had he arrived...the old soldiers fancied they saw Hamilcar in his youth given back to them; the same bright look; the same fire in his eye, the same trick of countenance and features. Hannibal was an inexperienced sailor, as was his crew, and was defeated even though, much to his credit, he came close to winning. Of the 80,000 Roman soldiers who took the field that day, 44,000 were killed while Hannibal lost around 6,000 men. Third Punic War 150 bc – Conflict between Carthage and Numidans but Carthage is not allowed to fight – beginning of 3 rd Punic war Hasdrubal – 3 rd Punic War Carthage leader, women cut their hair to make rope, prisoners became fighters This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Scipio seemed to conform to Hannibal's expectations when he arranged his forces in traditional formation in a seemingly tight cluster. Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunis and stripped it of supplies, an action that aggravated the faltering negotiations. The Battle of Zama - Elephant Chargeby Mohammad Adil (CC BY-SA). Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation. Appian writes that it was Prusias who poisoned Hannibal. 0 0 Famed for his incredible fifteen day journey across the Alps and for his great victories over the Romans at Trebia and Cannae, he remained undefeated in battle until his raw armies were crushed by Scipio at Zama in 203 B.C., leaving Carthage at the mercy of the … Israel and Hellas: Sacred institutions with Roman counterparts. There was a Carthaginian Senate, but the real power was with the inner "Council of 30 Nobles" and the board of judges from ruling families known as the "Hundred and Four". At one point, it seemed that Hannibal was on the verge of victory, but Scipio was able to rally his men, and his cavalry, having routed the Carthaginian cavalry, attacked Hannibal's rear. Hasdrubal, recognizing that Spain was a lost cause, crossed the Alps to join Hannibal in Italy for a united attack on Rome. There Hannibal had an opportunity to show his masterful military skill at the Trebia in December of the same year, after wearing down the superior Roman infantry, when he cut it to pieces with a surprise attack and ambush from the flanks. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. Although he is by far the most famous Hannibal, when further clarification is necessary he is usually referred to as "Hannibal, son of Hamilcar", or Hannibal the Barcid, the latter term applying to the family of his father, Hamilcar Barca. As Scipio saw that he was likely to prolong his self-laudation he said, laughing, "where would you place yourself, Hannibal, if you had not been defeated by me?" The story of Hannibal's life is told largely by his enemies, the Romans, through the historians who wrote of the Punic Wars. He was born in what is present day northern Tunisia, one of many Mediterranean regions colonised by the Canaanites from their homelands in Phoenicia. This is done through a mixture of lecture style episodes as well as more relaxed Let's Talk epis… In March 212 BC, Hannibal captured Tarentum in a surprise attack but he failed to obtain control of its harbour. De Beer was one of only three interpreters – the others being John Lazenby and Jakob Seibert – to have visited all the Alpine high passes and presented a view on which was most plausible. His flight ended in the court of Bithynia. Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him. If Carthage had sent the requested men and supplies at this point, history would have been written very differently; but they did not. [52] The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's weak center, but the Libyan mercenaries on the wings, swung around by the movement, menaced their flanks. He then sent word to Carthage for more men and supplies, especially siege engines, but his request was denied. Scipio eventually defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama, having previously driven Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal out of the Iberian Peninsula. On the way, recognizing the importance of winning the people to his side, he portrayed himself as a liberator freeing the people of Spain from Roman control. No surviving ancient biography makes him the subject, and Hannibal slips in and out of focus according to the emphasis that other authors give his deeds and character. They never considered he would move his army over the mountains to reach them and thought he was still in Spain somewhere. For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare. Hannibal. [12], After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes. It is believed that his refusal to bring the war to Rome itself was due to a lack of commitment from Carthage of men, money, and material â€” principally siege equipment. [88], According to Livy, the land occupied by Hannibal's army outside Rome in 211 BC was sold at the very time of its occupation and for the same price. This journey was originally planned by Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair, who became a Carthaginian general in the Iberian Peninsula in 229 BC. As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot. Background . Hasdrubal pursued a policy of consolidation of Carthage's Iberian interests, even signing a treaty with Rome whereby Carthage would not expand north of the Ebro so long as Rome did not expand south of it. When his father drowned[16] in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal the Fair succeeded to his command of the army with Hannibal (then 18 years old) serving as an officer under him. Hannibal constantly sought reinforcements from either Iberia or North Africa. Web. This was a severe blow to Fabius’ prestige. [89] This may not be true, but as Lazenby states, "could well be, exemplifying as it does not only the supreme confidence felt by the Romans in ultimate victory, but also the way in which something like normal life continued. The troops and their general had to battle not only the weather and the incline but hostile tribes who lived in the mountains. His father, Hamilcar Barca, was a leading Carthaginian commander during the First Punic War. Smelling a stratagem (rightly), he stayed put. The Roman consuls mounted another siege of Capua in 211 BC, conquering the city. Hannibal, discovering that the castle where he was living was surrounded by Roman soldiers and he could not escape, took poison. By this time, Scipio was already set to invade North Africa and his plan would work exactly as he predicted. This strategy was unpopular with many Romans, who believed that it was a form of cowardice. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/hannibal/. Hannibal's perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground. Polybius writes how Hannibal, had a set of wigs made, each of which made him look like a man of a different age. Mar 22, 2016 - Son of Hamilcar Barca. Lecture 13: "The Second Punic War". The most influential modern theories favor either a march up the valley of the Drôme and a crossing of the main range to the south of the modern highway over the Col de Montgenèvre or a march farther north up the valleys of the Isère and Arc crossing the main range near the present Col de Mont Cenis or the Little St Bernard Pass. During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions within the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups. de], Snow Storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, "Biostratigraphic Evidence Relating to the Age-Old Question of Hannibal's Invasion of Italy, I: History and Geological Reconstruction", "Reconnaissance of the Hannibalic Route in the Upper Po Valley, Italy: Correlation with Biostratigraphic Historical Archaeological Evidence in the Upper Guil Valley, France", "Le prototype d'une statue de Hannibal présenté au président de la République", "The Price of Greed: Hannibal's Betrayal by Carthage", Life of Hannibal by Cornelius Nepos at Perseus Digital Library, Hannibal's life by Cornelius Nepos, Latin transcription and translation to German, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hannibal&oldid=991534537, Carthaginian commanders of the Second Punic War, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from May 2018, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, General Commander-in-Chief of the Carthaginian army, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 15:47. The Punic Wars were not just a battle of two significant powers, but … Here, Hannibal forced the Romans to evacuate the plain of Lombardy, by virtue of his superior cavalry. [10] Modern historians occasionally refer to Hannibal's brothers as Hasdrubal Barca and Mago Barca to distinguish them from the multitudes of other Carthaginians named Hasdrubal and Mago,[citation needed] but this practice is ahistorical, and is rarely applied to Hannibal. Nothing is known of his mother and, although he was married at the time of some of his greatest victories, no records make mention of his wife other than her name, Imilce, and the fact that she bore him a son. Its precise vocalization remains a matter of debate. Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania, but Fabius had ensured that all the passes were blocked out of Campania. Related Content Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols that ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet. It is a combination of the common Carthaginian masculine given name Hanno with the Northwest Semitic Canaanite deity Baal (lit. During one of the naval victories he gained over Eumenes, Hannibal had large pots filled with venomous snakes thrown onto Eumenes' ships. Hannibal was one of the sons of Hamilcar Barca, a Carthaginian leader. Polybius claims that Hannibal's men marched for four days and three nights "through a land that was under water", suffering terribly from fatigue and enforced want of sleep. [59] His arrival immediately restored the predominance of the war party, which placed him in command of a combined force of African levies and his mercenaries from Italy. Again, all we know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources. Here they knelt and swept the temple-floors with their dishevelled hair and lifted up their hands to heaven in piteous entreaty to the gods that they would deliver the City of Rome out of the hands of the enemy and preserve its mothers and children from injury and outrage. By 265 B.C., Carthage was the wealthiest and most advanced city in the region, as well as its leading naval power. His father was Hamilcar Barca (l. 275-228 BCE), the great general of the First Punic War (264-241 BCE). In 212 BC, Marcellus conquered Syracuse and the Romans destroyed the Carthaginian army in Sicily in 211–210 BC. His brothers-in-law were Hasdrubal the Fair and the Numidian king Naravas. At this same time, the Carthaginian cavalry engaged the Roman cavalry and dispersed them, falling on the rear on the Roman infantry. When Hannibal's successes had brought about the death of two Roman consuls, he vainly searched for the body of Gaius Flaminius on the shores of Lake Trasimene, held ceremonial rituals in recognition of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and sent Marcellus' ashes back to his family in Rome. P.53. [69] Hannibal went on to serve Prusias in this war. [45], The only alternative route to central Italy lay at the mouth of the Arno. With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. [79], Appian wrote of a prophecy about Hannibal's death, which stated that "Libyssan earth shall cover Hannibal's remains." 2000. (24). [102][103] George S. Patton believed himself a reincarnation of Hannibal – as well as of many other people, including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier. The war in Italy settled into a strategic stalemate. Hannibal had now disposed of the only field force that could check his advance upon Rome, but he realized that, without siege engines, he could not hope to take the capital. We follow Hannibal throughout his campaigns as well as looking at the Punic Wars at large. The Second Punic War broke out in 218 BC after Hannibal's attack on Saguntum, an ally of Rome in Hispania. By closely examining the accounts of Livy and Polybius, supplemented with the fruits of modern research, Lazenby provides a detailed military history of the entire war as it … 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). Cite This Work In 202 BC, Hannibal met Scipio in a fruitless peace conference. Publius Cornelius Scipio was the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal (he was also the father of Scipio Africanus). The wars between Rome and Carthage are called the Punic Wars. He quickly took the Carthaginian city of Utica and marched on toward Carthage. Hannibal, (born 247 bce, North Africa—died c. 183–181 bce, Libyssa, Bithynia [near Gebze, Turkey]), Carthaginian general, one of the great military leaders of antiquity, who commanded the Carthaginian forces against Rome in the Second Punic War (218–201 bce) and who continued to oppose Rome and its satellites until his death. At the Pyrenees, he released 11,000 Iberian troops who showed reluctance to leave their homeland. The remainder of his life was spent as a statesman and then in voluntary exile at the courts of foreign kings. [27] He fought his way through the northern tribes to the foothills of the Pyrenees, subduing the tribes through clever mountain tactics and stubborn fighting. The loss of this war spelled the end for the Punic and Carthaginian culture as they were unable to acquire enough resources in the Second Punic War … [1] Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge called Hannibal the "father of strategy",[2] because Roman armies adopted elements of his military tactics into their own strategic arsenal. In 208 BCE, he defeated Hasdrubal at the Battle of Baecula using the same tactic Hannibal had at Cannae. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome. What Hannibal achieved in extricating his army was, as Adrian Goldsworthy puts it, "a classic of ancient generalship, finding its way into nearly every historical narrative of the war and being used by later military manuals". In 203 BC, after nearly fifteen years of fighting in Italy, and with the military fortunes of Carthage rapidly declining, Hannibal was recalled to Carthage to direct the defense of his native country against a Roman invasion under Scipio Africanus. The authors add an apocryphal story of how Hannibal planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata. Hannibal spent time learning about his enemy, their strengths & weaknesses, & knew that Varro was over-confident of success. The Punic Wars proved that, while the Roman land armies could be defeated, when put in the hands of an experienced commander like Scipio, they could arguably the … In the meantime, the Romans hoped to gain success through sheer strength and weight of numbers, and they raised a new army of unprecedented size, estimated by some to be as large as 100,000 men, but more likely around 50–80,000.[52]. [71] Prusias agreed, but the general was determined not to fall into his enemy's hands. Hannibal started the war without the full backing of Carthaginian oligarchy. [9] Although they did not inherit the surname from their father, Hamilcar's progeny are collectively known as the Barcids. He had no siege machines and no elephants to take any of the cities and so relied on his image as liberator to try to coax the cities over to his side. "The Traversette rockfall: geomorphological reconstruction and importance in interpreting classical history." Battle of Cannae - Initial Deploymentby The Department of History, United States Military Academy (Public Domain). He changed these constantly, each time changing his apparel to match his appearance. [15], Hannibal's father went about the conquest of Hispania. There Hannibal destroyed Flaminius' army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes, killing Flaminius as well (see Battle of Lake Trasimene). Matyszak writes: In the field, Hannibal remained umatched. argue that factors used by De Beer to support Col de la Traversette including "gauging ancient place names against modern, close scrutiny of times of flood in major rivers and distant viewing of the Po plains" taken together with "massive radiocarbon and microbiological and parasitical evidence" from the alluvial sediments either side of the pass furnish "supporting evidence, proof if you will" that Hannibal's invasion went that way. He died the same year as Hannibal at the age of 53. Historians such as Serge Lancell have questioned the reliability of the figures for the number of troops that he had when he left Hispania. Meanwhile, Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian Senate, had returned with his army. This, he wrote, made Hannibal believe that he would die in Libya, but instead, it was at the Bithynian Libyssa that he would die. Their troops bolstered his army back to around 40,000 men. [28], Hannibal recognized that he still needed to cross the Pyrenees, the Alps, and many significant rivers. A History Of: Hannibal and the Punic Wars is a biweekly biography of everybody's favourite Carthaginian general. de Beer, S. G., 1969, Hannibal: Challenging Rome's supremacy, Viking, New York, NY. [111], Carthaginian general and statesman (247–183/181 BC), A marble bust, reputedly of Hannibal, originally found at the ancient city-state of, Conclusion of the Second Punic War (203–201 BC), Brown, John Pairman. 1999. Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest way to central Italy. Some qualities have been recognized by Hannibal since Antiquity: audacity, courage and pugnacity. First Punic War 264 to 241 BC. Mahaney, W.C., Allen, C.C.R., Pentlavalli, P., Dirszowsky, O., Tricart, P., Keiser, L., Somelar, P., Kelleher, B., Murphy, B., Costa, P.J.M., and Julig, P., 2014, "Polybius's ‘previous landslide’: proof that Hannibal's invasion route crossed the Col de la Traversette". Hannibal marched on the city in 218 BCE, lay siege to it, and took it. Hunt responds to this by proposing that Hannibal's Celtic guides purposefully misguided the Carthaginian general. It seems that the Romans lulled themselves into a false sense of security, having dealt with the threat of a Gallo-Carthaginian invasion, and perhaps knowing that the original Carthaginian commander had been killed. Of the tribes in the region, as well as looking at the Punic Wars was man. Carthage lost approximately 20,000 troops to garrison the newly conquered region in their soldiery Capua. Did not use hereditary surnames, but the siege with an assault on Roman! 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