Several Spanish expeditions followed in 1517 and 1519, making landfall on various parts of the Yucatán coast. Sometimes there were as many as 30 indigenous warriors for every Spaniard, and the participation of these Mesoamerican allies was decisive. Thirteen Spaniards were injured by arrows in the first assault, but the conquistadors regrouped and repulsed the Maya attack.  With the defeat of the Itza, the last independent and unconquered native kingdom in the Americas fell to the European colonisers. Mayan art was extremely skilled and beautiful, with rich history and stories. The fleet then sailed south along the east coast of the peninsula. He was greatly impressed by a Roman Catholic mass celebrated for his benefit and converted to the new religion.  In early November 1695, two Franciscans were sent to establish a mission at Pakʼekʼem, where they were well received by the cacique (native chief) and his pagan priest.  In the southern portion of the peninsula, a number of polities occupied the Petén Basin. Schele and Fahsen calculated all dates on the more securely dated Kaqchikel annals, where equivalent dates are often given in both the Kaqchikel and Spanish calendars. Montejo the Younger was received in friendship by the lord of the Chel province. , The Sajkabʼchen company of native musketeers engaged in a skirmish with about 25 Kejache near the abandoned Kejache town of Chunpich.  The Lakandon had a fierce reputation amongst the Spanish.  On 28 February 1695, all three groups left their respective bases of operations to conquer the Lacandon.  Horses had never been encountered by the Maya before, and their use gave the mounted conquistador an overwhelming advantage over his unmounted opponent, allowing the rider to strike with greater force while simultaneously making him less vulnerable to attack.  In the 1640s internal strife in Spain distracted the government from attempts to conquer unknown lands; the Spanish Crown lacked the time, money or interest in such colonial adventures for the next four decades.  The most important of these was Sakbʼajlan on the Lacantún River, which was renamed as Nuestra Señora de Dolores, or Dolores del Lakandon, in April 1695. Late in 1528, Montejo left d'Avila to oversee Xamanha and sailed north to loop around the Yucatán Peninsula and head for the Spanish colony of New Spain in central Mexico.  The third group, under Juan Díaz de Velasco, marched from Verapaz against the Itza of northern Petén.  The first contact between the Maya and European explorers came in 1502, during the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus, when his brother Bartholomew encountered a canoe. The San Mateo group headed northeast into the Lacandon Jungle, and joined up with Jacinto de Barrios Leal, president of the Royal Audiencia of Guatemala. one could make a whole book ... out of the atrocities, barbarities, murders, clearances, ravages and other foul injustices perpetrated ... by those that went to Guatemala, Exploration of the Yucatán coast, 1517–1519, Preparations for conquest of the Highlands, 1522–1523, Hernán Cortés in the Maya lowlands, 1524–25, Fringes of empire: Belize, 16th–17th centuries, Conquest of the Maya Highlands, 1524–1526, Kaqchikel alliance and conquest of the Tzʼutujil, 1524, Reconnaissance of the Chiapas Highlands, 1524, Pedro de Alvarado in the Chiapas Highlands, 1525, Central and eastern Guatemalan Highlands, 1525–1532, Conquest of the Chiapas Highlands, 1527–1547, Founding of Ciudad Real, Chiapa, 1531–1535, Establishment of the Dominicans in Chiapa, 1545–1547, Francisco de Montejo and Alonso d'Avila, Yucatán 1531–35, San Marcos: Province of Tecusitlán and Lacandón, 1533, Campaigns in the Cuchumatanes and Lacandon Forest, Western Cuchumatanes and Lacandon Forest, 1529–1686, Conquest and settlement in northern Yucatán, 1540–46, Franciscan expeditions, September 1695 – January 1696. Montejo the Younger abandoned Ciudad Real by night, and he and his men fled west, where the Chel, Pech and Xiu provinces remained obedient to Spanish rule.  Accounts of the conquest as seen from the point of view of the defeated highland Maya kingdoms are included in a number of indigenous documents, including the Annals of the Kaqchikels.  In Tabasco, Cortés anchored his ships at Potonchán, a Chontal Maya town.  Although disease was responsible for the majority of deaths, Spanish expeditions and internecine warfare between indigenous groups also played their part. Spanish Conquer the Aztecs and Incas Fall of the Aztecs After Columbus discovered the “New World”, the Spanish sent conquistadors across the Atlantic to claim land for Spain. , In the spring of 1528, Montejo left Conil for the city of Chauaca, which was abandoned by its Maya inhabitants under cover of darkness. The Mayans believed that Utatlan was favored by the gods, and the surrounding cities were re quired to pay tribute. The Indians abandoned their towns and hid their women and children in caves. This allowed the Spanish to break the defences.  The Spanish built a fort and garrisoned it with 30 Spanish soldiers. She spoke Maya and Nahuatl and became the means by which Cortés was able to communicate with the Aztecs. Recinos places all these dates two days earlier (e.g. This detailed the history of Petén from 1525 through to 1699.. Elizabeth Graham, Scott E. Simmons and Christine D. White Abstract The phenomenon of the Spanish Conquest of the Maya region suggests strongly that, in the process of socio-cultural transformation, ‘religion’ has no meaning as a concept with its own particular dynamic. Whenever the Spanish located a centre of population in this region, the inhabitants were moved and concentrated in a new colonial settlement near the edge of the jungle where the Spanish could more easily control them. The defeated Chontal Maya lords offered gold, food, clothing and a group of young women in tribute to the victors.  Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas wrote a highly critical account of the Spanish conquest of the Americas and included accounts of some incidents in Guatemala. The end result of the negotiations between Mazariegos and the established settlers was that Villa de San Cristóbal de los Llanos was broken up, and those settlers who wished to remain were transferred to Villa Real, which had been moved to the fertile Jovel valley. , Marín was initially met by a peaceful embassy as he approached the Tzoztzil town of Chamula. Many conquistadors viewed the Maya as "infidels" who needed to be forcefully converted and pacified, disregarding the achievements of their civilization. Their warriors were conquerors The Spanish regrouped and forced passage to the shore, where their discipline collapsed and a frantic scramble for the boats ensued, leaving the Spanish vulnerable to the pursuing Maya warriors who waded into the sea behind them. From Veracruz he traveled to Tenochitian which is was the capital city of the Aztecs. As a result, the inhabitants of Soconusco were less likely to be rounded up into new reducción settlements than elsewhere in Chiapas, since the planting of a new cacao crop would have required five years to mature.  The expedition was now perilously short of fresh water, and shore parties searching for water were left dangerously exposed because the ships could not pull close to the shore due to the shallows.  The Spanish found that the Chamula Tzotzil had abandoned their lands and stripped them of food in an attempt to discourage the invaders. This included the Mam inhabitants of the area now within the modern department of San Marcos.  Following the same route used in 1686, they managed on the way to recruit 200 indigenous Maya warriors from Santa Eulalia, San Juan Solomá and San Mateo. Historians and cultural anthropologists began seriously studying the Maya in the early 1900s.  Spanish reinforcements arrived too late.  The Maya inhabitants of Cozumel fled the Spanish and would not respond to Grijalva's friendly overtures. About a dozen of the Spanish party were seized, and three were killed.  As soon as they did so, he seized them as prisoners. The Cochua and Cupul Maya resisted Spanish domination, but were quickly defeated.  Mazariegos entered into protracted three-month negotiations with the Spanish settlers in Coatzacoalcos (Espíritu Santo) and San Cristóbal de los Llanos. Hernando cortés conquerd the Aztecs and Francisco pizzaro conquered the incas. The Kowoj were located around the eastern Petén lakes. , In 1529 the Chuj city of San Mateo Ixtatán (then known by the name of Ystapalapán) was given in encomienda to the conquistador Gonzalo de Ovalle together with Santa Eulalia and Jacaltenango. They reported that neighbouring groups in Guatemala were attacking them because of their friendly outlook towards the Spanish.  In May the expedition advanced to Sakalum, where they waited for reinforcements.  Chiapas features two principal highland regions; to the south is the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and in central Chiapas are the Montañas Centrales (Central Highlands). Shortly afterwards, Montejo the Younger summoned the local Maya lords and commanded them to submit to the Spanish Crown. All rights reserved. The Mayans. Did the Mayans believe in afterlife? Around this time the news began to arrive of Francisco Pizarro's conquests in Peru and the rich plunder there. As more city-states grew bigger, so did their desire to conquer and obtain power, land Avendaño tried to convince Kan Ekʼ to convert to Christianity and surrender to the Spanish Crown, without success. The Mayans attempted to recapture the city of Tikal soon after, but their assault was repelled by superior firepower. Alvarado returned to Mexico to claim his conquest of Guatemala only to have the Cakcquichel Mayans flee into the mountains and rebel for two more years.  Alvarado then headed upriver into the Sierra Madre mountains towards the Kʼicheʼ heartlands, crossing the pass into the valley of Quetzaltenango.  The victorious Spanish branded surviving warriors as slaves. Kaybʼil Bʼalam finally surrendered the city to the Spanish in the middle of October 1525. The captured Itza captain and his followers were taken back to the Spanish Captain Antonio Méndez de Canzo, interrogated under torture, tried, and executed. Following this battle, Marín headed into the central highlands of Chiapas; around Easter he passed through the Tzotzil Maya town Zinacantan without opposition from the inhabitants. He was accompanied by the friendly Chel lord Namux Chel.  By August 1521 the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan had fallen to the Spanish.  En route to Nojpetén, Delgado left the expedition to make his own way to Nojpetén with eighty Christianised Maya from Tipuj in Belize; he was joined by an escort of 13 soldiers.  The city fell after a brief but bloody battle in which many Itza warriors died; the Spanish suffered only minor casualties. The Mayan city-states were far less _____ & the Maya polity far more _____ than those of the Aztecs. , In 1525 Pedro de Alvarado sent a small company to conquer Mixco Viejo (Chinautla Viejo), the capital of the Poqomam. The death of their lord only served to inflame Cupul anger and, in mid 1533, they laid siege to the small Spanish garrison at Chichen Itza. As the Spanish party advanced along a path towards the city, they were ambushed by Maya warriors. The Maya were notably victims of conquest by the Spanish in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and by 1697 their civilization had collapsed. Maya written histories suggest that smallpox was rapidly transmitted throughout the Maya area the same year that it arrived in central Mexico.  Around 3 August García moved his entire army forward to Chunpich, and by October Spanish soldiers had established themselves near the source of the San Pedro River.   At the beginning of March 1695, Captain Alonso García de Paredes led a group of 50 Spanish soldiers south into Kejache territory, accompanied by native guides, muleteers and labourers.  Most warriors were not full-time, however, and were primarily farmers; the needs of their crops usually came before warfare.  The Chajoma rebelled against the Spanish in 1526, fighting a battle at Ukubʼil, an unidentified site somewhere near the modern towns of San Juan Sacatepéquez and San Pedro Sacatepéquez. , Following these massacres, the Maya governor of Oxkutzcab, Fernando Kamal, set out with 150 Maya archers to track AjKʼin Pʼol down. , The 16th-century Spanish conquistadors were armed with one- and two-handed broadswords, lances, pikes, rapiers, halberds, crossbows, matchlocks and light artillery. The provisions were soon exhausted and additional food was requisitioned from the local Maya villagers; this too was soon consumed. , In the ten years after the fall of Zaculeu various Spanish expeditions crossed into the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes and engaged in the gradual and complex conquest of the Chuj and Qʼanjobʼal.  Those that remained behind in the reducciones often fell victim to contagious diseases; coastal reducciones, while convenient for Spanish administration, were also vulnerable to pirate attacks. 2000 1697 900 1523 13. But they did not die out. , At Campeche, a strong Maya force attacked the city, but was repulsed by the Spanish. The only Spanish settlement in the territory was established by Alonso d'Avila in 1531 and lasted less than two years.  The governor joined Captain Rodríguez Mazariegos in San Mateo Ixtatán on 3 February; he ordered the captain to remain in the village and use it as a base of operations for penetrating the Lacandon region. They farmed corn but also built magnificent temps like the Mayans and Incans. As Bartholomew explored, a large trading canoe approached. , Epidemics incidentally introduced by the Spanish included smallpox, measles and influenza. The Mam army advanced across the plain in battle formation and was met by a Spanish cavalry charge that threw them into disarray, with the infantry mopping up those Mam that survived the cavalry. As soon as the Spanish attacked, they were ambushed from the rear by over two thousand Uspantek warriors.  Cortés sent out messengers to them and was able to rescue the shipwrecked Gerónimo de Aguilar, who had been enslaved by a Maya lord. , In March 1622, Captain Francisco de Mirones Lezcano set out from Yucatán with 20 Spanish soldiers and 80 Mayas to launch an assault upon the Itza. Also aboard were Francisco de Montejo and Bernal Díaz del Castillo, veterans of the Grijalva expedition. This successful resistance against Spanish attempts at domination served to attract ever more Indians fleeing colonial rule. The newly conquered territory became New Spain, headed by a viceroy who answered to the king of Spain via the Council of the Indies. After six months of Spanish rule, Naabon Cupul was killed during a failed attempt to kill Montejo the Younger. If you go to the capital of Mexico and the state of … It took them a long time (170 years) to finish doing this because the Mayans had no capital city and each city had a different culture.  The Franciscans baptised over 300 Itza children over the following four days. Two Spanish missionaries also remained in the town.  Old World cultural elements came to be thoroughly adopted by Maya groups. Even valuable items, such as cacao seeds, salt, obsidian, or gold tended By sunrise the Spanish had been surrounded by a sizeable army.  Ecab, Uaymil, Chetumal all bordered on the Caribbean Sea. The first of these to face the might of the Spaniards was the Mayan Kiche kingdom..  There were just twenty survivors from the wreck, including Captain Valdivia, Gerónimo de Aguilar and Gonzalo Guerrero.  The 16th-century Maya provinces of northern Yucatán are likely to have evolved out of polities of the Maya Classic period.  Other highland groups included the Tzʼutujil around Lake Atitlán, the Mam in the western highlands and the Poqomam in the eastern highlands.  This was the first recorded contact between Europeans and the Maya.  In practise, the quick turnover of encomiendas continued, since few Spaniards had legal Spanish wives and legitimate children who could inherit.  Maya warfare was not so much aimed at destruction of the enemy as the seizure of captives and plunder. By the latter half of the 18th century, the local inhabitants consisted entirely of Spaniards, mulattos and others of mixed race, all associated with the Castillo de San Felipe de Lara fort guarding the entrance to Lake Izabal.  In 1641, the Franciscans established two reducciones among the Muzul Maya of central Belize, at Zoite and Cehake; both settlements were sacked by Dutch corsairs within a year. Many theories try to explain why this happened. They also managed to acquire special privileges from the Crown in order to stabilise the colony, such as an edict that specified that the governor of Chiapa must govern in person and not through a delegated representative.  The rest of the party arrived at the shore of Lake Petén Itzá, but quickly retreated back to Guatemala.  Modern knowledge of the impact of these diseases on populations with no prior exposure suggests that 33–50% of the population of the Maya highlands perished. , Juan de San Buenaventura's small group of Franciscans arrived in Chuntuki on 30 August 1695. The surrounding towns also surrendered, and December 1530 marked the end of the military stage of the conquest of the Cuchumatanes.  The Spanish only stayed briefly before continuing to Atitlan and the Pacific coast. The Spanish conquest of the Maya was a prolonged affair; the Maya kingdoms resisted integration into the Spanish Empire with such tenacity that their defeat took almost two centuries. , The fleet made its first landfall at Cozumel; Maya temples were cast down and a Christian cross was put up on one of them.  Gonzalo de Alvarado left the Spanish camp at Tecpán Guatemala in July 1525 and marched to Momostenango, which quickly fell to the Spanish after a four-hour battle. Spanish and native tactics and technology differed greatly. , After Zaculeu fell to the Spanish, the Ixil and Uspantek Maya were sufficiently isolated to evade immediate Spanish attention. The mayans Today we will be talking about a civilization that existed long ago, and ever since 900 A.D., they've ceased to exist. The newly acquired supplies would then be used in further expeditions to conquer and pacify still-independent regions, leading to a cycle of slave raids, trade for supplies, followed by further conquests and slave raids. The battle eventually resulted in a Spanish victory, but the rest of the province of Chiapa remained rebellious.  The conquistadors applied a more effective military organisation and strategic awareness than their opponents, allowing them to deploy troops and supplies in a way that increased the Spanish advantage.  At the eastern end of the Central Highlands is the Lacandon Forest, this region is largely mountainous with lowland tropical plains at its easternmost extreme. What did the Mayans think would help them in farming and war? He sent his brother Bartholomew to scout the island. This strategy resulted in the gradual depopulation of the forest, simultaneously converting it into a wilderness refuge for those fleeing Spanish domination, both for individual refugees and for entire communities.  In 1527 he left Spain with 400 men in four ships, with horses, small arms, cannon and provisions. Thus, the empire spanned modern-day … Maya warriors fought with flint-tipped spears, bows and arrows, stones, and wooden swords with inset obsidian blades, and wore padded cotton armour to protect themselves. ... we waited until they came close enough to shoot their arrows, and then we smashed into them; as they had never seen horses, they grew very fearful, and we made a good advance ... and many of them died. Cortes then went on to conquer the … Pedro de Alvarado and others conquered the Mayans.  Other groups in Petén are less well known, and their precise territorial extent and political makeup remains obscure; among them were the Chinamita, the Icaiche, the Kejache, the Lakandon Chʼol, the Manche Chʼol, and the Mopan.  His was joined by Franciscan friar Diego Delgado. , In 1688 colonial historian Diego López de Cogolludo detailed the expeditions of the Spanish missionaries in 1618 and 1619 in his Los tres siglos de la dominación española en Yucatán o sea historia de esta provincia ("The three centuries of Spanish domination in Yucatán, or the history of this province"); he based it upon Fuensalida's report, which is now lost.  The provinces of Cupul, Cochua, Sotuta, Tazes, Uaymil, Chetumal and Chikinchel united in an effort to drive the invaders from the peninsula; the uprising lasted four months.  The Zinacantecos, true to their pledge of allegiance two years earlier, aided the Spanish against the other indigenous peoples of the region.  The Dominicans soon came into conflict with the established colonists. , Pedro de Portocarrero, a young nobleman, led the next expedition into Chiapas after Alvarado, again from Guatemala. The Spanish forces were routed with heavy losses; many of their indigenous allies were slain, and many more were captured alive by the Uspantek warriors only to be sacrificed. , Although Mazariegos had managed to establish his new provincial capital without armed conflict, excessive Spanish demands for labour and supplies soon provoked the locals into rebellion. , The crossbows and early firearms were unwieldy and deteriorated rapidly in the field, often becoming unusable after a few weeks of campaigning due to the effects of the climate. , Montejo the Younger then sent his cousin to Chauaca where most of the eastern lords greeted him in peace. The Spanish launched an expedition against Puyumatlan; it was not successful in terms of conquest, but enabled the Spanish to seize more slaves to trade for weapons and horses.  The Europeans looted whatever took their interest from amongst the cargo and seized the elderly captain to serve as an interpreter; the canoe was then allowed to continue on its way.  Superior Spanish weaponry and the use of cavalry, although decisive in the northern Yucatán, were ill-suited to warfare in the dense forests of lowland Petén. , Franciscan friar Andrés Avendaño y Loyola recorded his own account of his late 17th century journeys to Nojpetén. Messages were sent with a few Maya who had been too slow to escape but the Maya remained hidden in the forest; the Spanish boarded their ships and continued along the coast. The Mayans were not known for conquering nearby groups as they typically remained within the confines of the Yucatan and central Mesoamerica. Kaybʼil Bʼalam, seeing that outright victory on an open battlefield was impossible, withdrew his army back within the safety of the walls.  He also included his own description of Cortes' expedition, and an account of the conquest of the Chiapas highlands. They are separated by the Depresión Central, containing the drainage basin of the Grijalva River, featuring a hot climate with moderate rainfall. To the north of the lakes region bajos become more frequent, interspersed with forest. An advance party was led into an Itza trap and 87 expedition members were lost, including 50 soldiers, two Dominicans and about 35 Maya helpers.  After taking the deserted Chamula, the Spanish expedition continued against their allies at Huixtan.  To prevent news of the Spanish advance reaching the inhabitants of the Lacandon area, the governor ordered the capture of three of San Mateo's community leaders, and had them sent under guard to be imprisoned in Huehuetenango.  Salamanca de Acalán proved a disappointment, with no gold for the taking and with lower levels of population than had been hoped. As Alvarado dug in and laid siege to the fortress, an army of approximately 8,000 Mam warriors descended on Zaculeu from the Cuchumatanes mountains to the north, drawn from towns allied with the city; the relief army was annihilated by the Spanish cavalry. The Maya civilization was one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica (a term used to describe Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest).  In order to counter Spanish encroachment into their territory, the local Maya maintained a tense alliance with English loggers operating in central Belize.  The use of steel swords was perhaps the greatest technological advantage held by the Spanish, although the deployment of cavalry helped them to rout indigenous armies on occasion. Estudio antropológico sobre una santa popular guatemalteca: aldea El Trapiche, municipio de El Adelanto, departamento de Jutiapa", "Los estilos tecnológicos de la cerámica Postclásica con engobe de la región de los lagos de Petén", University at Albany, State University of New York, "Gonzalo Guerrero, primer mexicano por voluntad propia", "Zaculeu: Ciudad Postclásica en las Tierras Altas Mayas de Guatemala", "Domingo Fajardo: vicario y defensor de indios en Petén. The colonists quickly ran short of food and responded by taking up arms and riding against the Indians in search of food and slaves.  In addition to Spaniards, the invasion force probably included dozens of armed African slaves and freemen. Maya states did not maintain standing armies; warriors were mustered by local officials who reported back to appointed warleaders. Night fell by the time the water casks had been filled and the attempts at communication concluded. He occupied his post for a year, during which time he attempted to reestablish Spanish control over the province, especially the northern and eastern regions, but was unable to make much headway. The Spanish spotted three large Maya cities along the coast, but Grijalva did not land at any of these and turned back north to loop around the north of the peninsula and sail down the west coast. Friar Bartolomé de las Casas and his followers left Spain in July 1544 to enforce the New Laws.  Barrios Leal was accompanied by Franciscan friar Antonio Margil, who remained in Dolores del Lakandon until 1697. , Maya armies were highly disciplined, and warriors participated in regular training exercises and drills; every able-bodied adult male was available for military service. Defence of Nojpeten The city was established on an island and there was no way to access it but through a canoe which had to land at a specific place. Colonial opposition to the Dominicans was such that the Dominicans were forced to flee Ciudad Real in fear of their lives. Mayans The oldest of these is the Mayans, who once lived on the Yucatan Peninsula. The Maya occupied a territory that is now incorporated into the modern countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador; the conquest began in the early 16th century and is generally considered to have ended in 1697. The Maya occupied a territory that is now incorporated into the modern countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador; the conquest began in the early 16th century and is generally considered to have ended in 1697. The Maya southern lowlands went into decline in the 8th and 9th centuries and were abandoned. Animal sacrifices What did Aztecs eat? The archaeological site now known as Mixco Viejo has been proven to be Jilotepeque Viejo, the capital of the Chajoma. By 1708 only about 6,000 Maya remained in central Petén, compared to ten times that number in 1697.  His aim was to subdue the rebellious Cristóbal de Olid, whom he had sent to conquer Honduras, and who had set himself up independently in that territory. On the steep southern slopes they clashed with between four and five thousand Ixil warriors; a lengthy battle followed during which the Spanish cavalry outflanked the Ixil army and forced them to retreat to their mountaintop fortress at Nebaj.  Maya warriors entered battle against the Spanish with flint-tipped spears, bows and arrows and stones. , There are no direct sources describing the conquest of the Chajoma by the Spanish but it appears to have been a drawn-out campaign rather than a rapid victory. , On 8 November 1546 an alliance of eastern provinces launched a coordinated uprising against the Spanish.  The Kaqchikel kept up resistance against the Spanish for a number of years, but on 9 May 1530, exhausted by warfare, the two kings of the most important clans returned from the wilds. After the conquest, the inhabitants of the kingdom were resettled in San Pedro Sacatepéquez, and San Martín Jilotepeque. , No Spanish military expeditions were launched against the Maya of Belize, although both Dominican and Franciscan friars penetrated the region in attempts at evangelising the natives. This surely made overthrow of the Maya much more challenging: to defeat the Aztecs, the Spanish only had to conquer _____, because this was the political center of the empire in which the _____ resided. Among the most deadly diseases were the aforementioned smallpox, influenza, measles and a number of pulmonary diseases, including tuberculosis.  Las Casas was instrumental in the introduction of the New Laws in 1542, established by the Spanish Crown to control the excesses of the colonists against the indigenous inhabitants of the Americas. , In 1533 Pedro de Alvarado ordered de León y Cardona to explore and conquer the area around the Tacaná, Tajumulco, Lacandón and San Antonio volcanoes; in colonial times this area was referred to as the Province of Tecusitlán and Lacandón.  During the second half of the 18th century, adult male Indians were heavily taxed, often being forced into debt peonage. No. Mayans: The Mayans were a people who lived (and continue to live today) in Central America, centered on southern Mexico and Honduras. Their name comes for the city of Mayapan, which once stood in the Yucatan in ancient times. The Olmecs and the Aztecs both conquered the Mayans and during their rule of the Mayans they taught them a great many things. The Kievan Rus were ruled by Varangian Norse Vikings from 870AD, and they traded around Crimea, and later the Mongols came and destroyed Kiev and made Vasall States of Novgorod and Moscow. Further Qʼanjobʼal reducciones were in place by 1560. Aro… Aguilar and Guerrero managed to escape their captors and fled to a neighbouring lord, who took them prisoner and kept them as slaves.  By means of interpreters, Grijalva indicated that he wished to trade and bartered wine and beads in exchange for food and other supplies. D'Avila soon abandoned the new settlement and set off across the lands of the Kejache to Champotón, arriving there towards the end of 1530, where he was later joined by the Montejos. Instead, they lived in city-states where communities were ruled by elders and elected leaders.  Hernán Cortés described his expedition to Honduras in the fifth letter of his Cartas de Relación. The colony of Guatemala at this time consisted only of the highlands and Pacific plain.  The Maya had historically employed ambush and raiding as their preferred tactic, and its employment against the Spanish proved troublesome for the Europeans.  Pedro de Portocarrero left Chiapas and returned to Guatemala. , Spanish weaponry and tactics differed greatly from that of the indigenous peoples.  One of the ships was left at Santo Domingo as a supply ship to provide later support; the other ships set sail and reached Cozumel, an island off the east coast of Yucatán, in the second half of September 1527. , Franciscan Andrés de Avendaño left Mérida on 13 December 1695, and arrived in Nojpetén around 14 January 1696, accompanied by four companions. The Spanish started to conquer Maya lands.  Martín de Ursúa now began to organise an all-out assault on Nojpetén. He initially met with resistance from the veteran conquistadores who had already established themselves in the region. It might have been conquering armies of Mexicans or changes in the climate. Iberian Peninsula and South America (1762–63), Banda Oriental and Rio Grande do Sul (1762–63), the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus, Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, "Historia y Evolución del Curato de San Pedro Sacatepéquez San Marcos, desde su origen hasta 1848", "Relaciones de Verapaz y las Tierras Bajas Mayas Centrales en el siglo XVII", Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, "El Santo Ángel. D'Avila continued southeast to Chetumal where he founded the Spanish town of Villa Real just within the borders of modern Belize. One Spaniard was killed and fifty were wounded in the ensuing battle, including Grijalva. Once there they built a heavily armed galeota attack boat, which carried 114 men and at least five artillery pieces. , After two Kaqchikel messengers sent by Pedro de Alvarado were killed by the Tzʼutujil, the conquistadors and their Kaqchikel allies marched against the Tzʼutujil. However, the Spanish exploited this fragmentation by taking advantage of pre-existing rivalries between polities.  Modern estimates of native population decline vary from 75% to 90% mortality. The surviving Tzʼutujil fled into the lake and swam to safety. , The support ship eventually arrived from Santo Domingo, and Montejo used it to sail south along the coast, while he sent his second-in-command Alonso d'Avila via land. In the spring of 1534 he rejoined his father in the Chakan province at Dzikabal, (near modern Mérida). Eventually an agreement was reached, and the encomiendas of Espíritu Santo that lay in the highlands were merged those of San Cristóbal to form the new province.  On 8 February 1524 Alvarado's army fought a battle at Xetulul, (modern San Francisco Zapotitlán). The last Mayan states, the Itza city of Tayasal and the Ko'woj city of Zacpeten , still …  After the destruction of Qʼumarkaj, Pedro de Alvarado sent messages to Iximche, capital of the Kaqchikel, proposing an alliance against the remaining Kʼicheʼ resistance. Although heavily outnumbered, the Spanish cavalry and firearms decided the battle.  The eastern provinces continued to resist Spanish overtures. Aguilar had learnt the Yucatec Maya language and became Cortés' interpreter. , Soconusco was an important communication route between the central Mexican highlands and Central America. , Before their defeat in 1697 the Itza controlled or influenced much of Petén and parts of Belize. , From Cozumel, the fleet looped around the north of the Yucatán Peninsula and followed the coast to the Grijalva River, which Cortés named in honour of the Spanish captain who had discovered it.  Work on the road was redoubled and about a month after the battle at Chʼichʼ the Spanish arrived at the lakeshore, now supported by artillery.  A letter from the defeated Tzʼutujil Maya nobility to the Spanish king written in 1571 details the exploitation of the subjugated peoples.  At the mouth of the Tabasco River the Spanish sighted massed warriors and canoes but the natives did not approach.  A small group of Franciscans led by friar Andrés de Avendaño sought out the Chunpich Kejache that had engaged the Sajkabʼchen musketeers but were unable to find them, and Avendaño returned to Mérida. , The richer lands of Mexico engaged the main attention of the Conquistadors for some years, then in 1526 Francisco de Montejo (a veteran of the Grijalva and Cortés expeditions) successfully petitioned the King of Spain for the right to conquer Yucatán. From farming villages to city-states, the Mayans lived in Central America almost …  Martín de Ursúa renamed Nojpetén as Nuestra Señora de los Remedios y San Pablo, Laguna del Itza ("Our Lady of Remedy and Saint Paul, Lake of the Itza"). I am from Honduras and here thousands of years ago here lived  The Maya lacked key elements of Old World technology, such as the use of iron and steel and functional wheels. They gained the trust of the Mayans… , By 1528, Spanish colonial power had been established in the Chiapas Highlands, and encomienda rights were being issued to individual conquistadores. After this, Mazariegos and his companions proceeded to Chiapan and set up a temporary camp nearby, that they named Villa Real. , The Yucatán Peninsula is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the east and by the Gulf of Mexico to the north and west. , In March 1524 Pedro de Alvarado camped outside Qʼumarkaj.  The expedition almost immediately withdrew back to Cahabón.  The Lakandon were aggressive, and their numbers were swelled by refugees from neighbouring indigenous groups fleeing Spanish domination.  Native resistance to the new nucleated settlements took the form of the flight of the indigenous inhabitants into inaccessible regions such as the forest or joining neighbouring Maya groups that had not yet submitted to the Spanish.  That morning, a waterbourne assault was launched upon Kan Ek's capital.  Conquistador Diego Godoy accompanied Luis Marín on his reconnaissance of Chiapas, and wrote an account of the battle against the inhabitants of Chamula.  The battle had lasted only an hour.  The refuge was attacked by Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras, brother of Pedro de Alvarado, in 1525, with 40 Spanish cavalry and 80 Spanish infantry, and some 2,000 Mexican and Kʼicheʼ allies.  The first Spanish reconnaissance of this region took place in 1524.  The survivors were pursued across a causeway to an island on foot before the inhabitants could break the bridges.  Bernal Díaz del Castillo wrote a lengthy account of the conquest of Mexico and neighbouring regions, the Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España ("True History of the Conquest of New Spain"); his account of the conquest of Guatemala generally agrees with that of the Alvarados. Zinacantán was the only indigenous settlement that remained loyal to the Spanish. Several musketeers were injured, and the Kejache retreated without injury. The Schele and Fahsen dates are used in this section. In 1618 two Franciscan friars set out from Mérida on a mission to attempt the peaceful conversion of the still pagan Itza in central Petén. It incorporates the modern Mexican states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo and Campeche, the eastern portion of the state of Tabasco, most of the Guatemalan department of Petén, and all of Belize.  The inhabitants of Tecpan Puyumatlan offered fierce resistance against the Spanish-led expedition, and Gonzalo de Alvarado wrote that the Spanish suffered many losses, including the killing of messengers sent to summon the natives to swear loyalty to the Spanish Crown. Montejo's ships arrive in Mexico in 1542 In 1541, Francisco de Montejo led an expedition from Spain with an army of Spanish troops and he set out to conquer the savage Mayans and relieve them of some of their treasures.  The Roman Catholic priests accompanying the expedition celebrated mass in the presence of the king of the Itza, who was said to be so impressed that he pledged to worship the cross and to destroy his idols. , Montejo was appointed alcalde mayor (a local colonial governor) of Tabasco in 1529, and pacified that province with the aid of his son, also named Francisco de Montejo. and find homework help for other Spanish Conquest questions at eNotes Who …  He invited the Kʼicheʼ lords Oxib-Keh (the ajpop, or king) and Beleheb-Tzy (the ajpop kʼamha, or king elect) to visit him in his camp.  To the south the plain gradually rises towards the Guatemalan Highlands.  The littoral zone of Soconusco lies to the south of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, and consists of a narrow coastal plain and the foothills of the Sierra Madre. Mazariegos had arrived with a mandate to establish a new colonial province of Chiapa in the Chiapas Highlands.  With the capitulation of the Kʼicheʼ kingdom, various non-Kʼicheʼ peoples under Kʼicheʼ dominion also submitted to the Spanish. Beginning of the Mayan conquest in 1524.  At Tzakahá the Spanish conducted a Roman Catholic mass under a makeshift roof; this site was chosen to build the first church in Guatemala.  The Dominicans promoted the veneration of Santiago Matamoros (St. James the Moor-slayer) as a readily identifiable image of Spanish military superiority. The Maya lacked key elements of Old World technology such as a functional wheel, horses, iron, steel, and gunpowder; they were also extremely susceptible to Old World diseases, against which they had no resistance. The spanish did NOT only conquer the Aztecs in Mexico, they also conquered the Mayans here in Central America-the countries of Honduras, Guatemala and Belize. His initial efforts were proving successful when Captain Lorenzo de Godoy arrived in Champoton at the command of soldiers despatched there by Montejo the Younger. The siege had lasted more than a month, and because of the defensive strength of the city, Alvarado ordered it to be burned and moved the inhabitants to the new colonial village of Mixco.  As a result of the uprising and the Spanish response, many of the Maya inhabitants of the eastern and southern territories fled to the still unconquered Petén Basin, in the extreme south. Montejo parcelled out the province amongst his soldiers as encomiendas.  He met with armed Kejache resistance, and retreated around the middle of April. Traditional Pacifist Views of the Maya .  The largest lake is Lake Petén Itza; it measures 32 by 5 kilometres (19.9 by 3.1 mi).  Within three years of the fall of Tenochtitlan the Spanish had conquered a large part of Mexico, extending as far south as the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. After a time, Gonzalo Guerrero was passed as a slave to the lord Nachan Can of Chetumal. , Montejo garrisoned Xelha with 40 soldiers and posted 20 more at nearby Pole. The ships only stopped briefly before making for the mainland, making landfall somewhere near Xelha in the Maya province of Ekab. Appointed to the Yucatan following the Spanish conquest of the north, Landa arrived in 1549 CE and instantly set himself to the task of routing out heathenism from among the Mayan converts to Christianity. Around 500 states!!!!  Due to the economic importance of cacao to the new colony, the Spanish were reluctant to move the indigenous inhabitants far from their established cacao orchards. 1795–1828", Sociedad de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala, "Mapa y Descripción de la Montaña del Petén e Ytzá. If you go to the Yucatan peninsula you will find Mayans or Mayan descendants. The modern day difficulty in deciphering the Mayan hieroglyphics stems from the actions of the same man who, inadvertently, preserved so much of what we know of the Maya Civilization: Bishop Diego de Landa. After this Spanish victory, the neighbouring Maya leaders all surrendered. The Northern Maya cities continued to flourish until the Spanish conquest. But the Aztecs were the first to fall. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. Cortés marched into Maya territory in Tabasco; the army crossed the Usumacinta River near Tenosique and crossed into the Chontal Maya province of Acalan, where he recruited 600 Chontal Maya carriers. 900 AD 2000 AD 2000 BC 1521 AD 14.  The Chʼol of the Lacandon Forest were resettled in Huehuetenango, in the Guatemalan Highlands, in the early 18th century. The company seized large amounts of abandoned food from two more deserted settlements and then also retreated. The Spanish reducciones created new nucleated settlements laid out in a grid pattern in the Spanish style, with a central plaza, a church and the town hall housing the civil government, known as the ayuntamiento. The expedition continued far enough to confirm the reality of the gold-rich empire, sailing as far north as Pánuco River. , The Petén Basin covers an area that is now part of Guatemala; in colonial times it originally fell under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Yucatán, before being transferred to the jurisdiction of the Audiencia Real of Guatemala in 1703. Once across, the conquistadors ransacked nearby settlements.  From Tabasco, Cortés continued along the coast, and went on to conquer the Aztecs. By 1574 it was the most important staging post for European expeditions into the interior, and it remained important in that role until as late as 1630, although it was abandoned in 1631. The battle lasted several days, and the Spanish were supported by indigenous warriors from central Mexico.  His party followed the Grijalva upriver; near modern Chiapa de Corzo the Spanish party fought and defeated the Chiapanecos.  Montejo the Younger founded Salamanca de Xicalango as a base of operations. It was divided into a number of independent provinces that shared a common culture but varied in their internal sociopolitical organisation. , Montejo the Elder became embroiled in colonial infighting over the right to rule Honduras, a claim that put him in conflict with Pedro de Alvarado, captain general of Guatemala, who also claimed Honduras as part of his jurisdiction. However, in the late 15th century the Kaqchikel rebelled against their former Kʼicheʼ allies and founded a new kingdom to the southeast with Iximche as its capital. Who conquered the Mayans Aztecs and Incas? This tactic allowed the Spanish to break through the pass and storm the entrance of the city. The Spanish started to conquer Maya lands.  In the early years of conquest, encomienda rights effectively meant rights to pillage and round up slaves, usually in the form of a group of mounted conquistadores launching a lightning slave raid upon an unsuspecting population centre. Maya warriors wore body armour in the form of quilted cotton that had been soaked in salt water to toughen it; the resulting armour compared favourably to the steel armour worn by the Spanish.  The Spanish founded a village nearby at Candacuchex in April that year, renaming it as San Marcos. Alvarado was deeply suspicious of Kʼicheʼ intentions but accepted the offer and marched to Qʼumarkaj with his army. Mam warriors initially held firm against the Spanish infantry but fell back before repeated cavalry charges. , A Guatemalan expedition against the Itza set out from Cahabón in early 1696. , At the time of the conquest, the main Mam population was situated in Xinabahul (modern Huehuetenango city), but Zaculeu's fortifications led to its use as a refuge during the conquest. Like the Mayans and Incans, the Aztecs had an abundance of agriculture.  They were also accompanied by about 40 Maya porters. As the fleet returned to Cuba, the Spanish attacked Champotón to avenge the previous year's defeat of the Spanish expedition led by Hernández. His campaign is largely undocumented but in January 1528 he successfully established the settlement of San Cristóbal de los Llanos in the Comitán valley, in the territory of the Tojolabal Maya. Olmos launched a disastrous full-scale frontal assault on the city. Mayans never lived under a single kingdom. Mayans made many advancements in mathematics that furthered our advancement in the discipline today.  The friars returned in October 1619, and again Kan Ekʼ welcomed them in a friendly manner, but this time the Maya priesthood were hostile and the missionaries were expelled without food or water, but survived the journey back to Mérida.  Mazariegos issued licences of encomienda covering still unconquered regions in order to encourage colonists to conquer new territory. Unknown to Mazariegos, the king had already issued an order that the settlements of San Cristóbal de los Llanos be transferred to Pedro de Alvarado. The Spanish returned to the Kaqchikel capital on 23 July 1524 and on 27 July Pedro de Alvarado declared Iximche as the first capital of Guatemala, Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala ("St. James of the Knights of Guatemala"). There was no universally accepted form of currency which could be used anywhere in the Maya region. In response to a furious Kʼicheʼ counterattack, Alvarado had the captured Kʼicheʼ lords burnt to death, and then proceeded to burn the entire city.  The Dominicans soon saw the need to reestablish themselves in Ciudad Real, and the hostilities with the colonists were calmed. Many Spanish and their horses died in the horse traps.  The expedition sailed west from Cuba for three weeks before sighting the northeastern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula.  The Land of War described an area that was undergoing conquest; it was a region of dense forest that was difficult for the Spanish to penetrate militarily.  Alvarado entered Chiapas from Guatemala via the territory of the Acala Chʼol; he was unable to locate Cortés, and his scouts eventually led him to Tecpan Puyumatlan (modern Santa Eulalia, Huehuetenango), in a mountainous region near the territory of the Lakandon Chʼol. Towards the end of 1534 or the beginning of the next year, Montejo the Elder and his son retreated to Veracruz, taking their remaining soldiers with them.  The Dominicans were the first religious order to attempt the evangelisation of the native population. Francisco Antonio de Fuentes y Guzmán was a colonial Guatemalan historian of Spanish descent who wrote La Recordación Florida. This battle marked the final conquest of the northern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. He immediately reinstated the old name of San Cristóbal de los Llanos upon Villa Real.  At Cozumel Cortés heard rumours of bearded men on the Yucatán mainland, who he presumed were Europeans. The same race of people as native Americans are. , Pedro de Alvarado describing the approach to Quetzaltenango in his 3rd letter to Hernán Cortés, Pedro de Alvarado and his army advanced along the Pacific coast unopposed until they reached the Samalá River in western Guatemala. , What is now the Mexican state of Chiapas was divided roughly equally between the non-Maya Zoque in the western half and Maya in the eastern half; this distribution continued up to the time of the Spanish conquest.  Portocarrero established Spanish dominion over a number of Tzeltal and Tojolabal settlements, and penetrated as far as the Tzotzil town of Huixtan.  Mazariegos proceeded with the policy of moving the Indians into reducciones; this process was made easier by the much reduced indigenous population levels.  Soon afterwards, on 27 January 1624, an Itza war party led by AjKʼin Pʼol caught Mirones and his soldiers off guard and unarmed in the church at Sakalum and slaughtered them.  The Spanish were attracted to the region in the hope of extracting gold, silver and other riches from the mountains but their remoteness, the difficult terrain and relatively low population made their conquest and exploitation extremely difficult. Further north, the vegetation turns to lower forest consisting of dense scrub.  With discontent growing among his men, Montejo took the drastic step of burning his ships; this strengthened the resolve of his troops, who gradually acclimatised to the harsh conditions of Yucatán. After this, Montejo led his men to Conil, a town in Ekab, where the Spanish party halted for two months.
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